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Collaboration between the two disciplines, however, was undermined by a series of controversies surrounding the relationship between psychology and culture. Freud's Totem and Taboo began the interdisciplinary dialogue, but it was Bronislaw Malinowski's embrace of psychoanalysis — a development anticipated through a close reading of his personal diaries — that marked a turning point in relations between the two disciplines. Malinowski argued that an avuncular rather than an Oedipal complex existed in the Trobriand Islands. Anfang des Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen beiden Disziplinen wurde jedoch durch eine Reihe von Kontroversen untergraben, die sich um die Beziehung zwischen Psychologie und Kultur drehten.

Die Betonung liegt auf den wichtigen Schriften und ihrer kritischen Rezeption. Agli inizi del XX secolo, molti analisti — tra cui in particolare Freud ed Ernest Jones — nutrivano fiducia sul fatto che gli antropologi culturali avrebbero dimostrato la natura universale del complesso di Edipo e di altri fenomeni inconsci.

Malinowski sosteneva che nelle isole Trobriand esistesse un complesso di tipo avuncolare piuttosto che Edipico , ma la brusca critica di questa teoria da parte di Ernest Jones ebbe l'effetto di allontanare Malinowski dalla psicoanalisi e pose fine a seri tentativi, da parte degli etnografi, di esplorare il pensiero freudiano. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis.

The International Journal of Psychoanalysis

Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively.

We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars.

Wir diskutieren unsere philosophische Haltung und unsere Einstellung zur Ausbildung, beschreiben unsere Institution und die Teilnehmenden. Esponiamo quindi la nostra filosofia e la nostra attitudine alla formazione, parliamo della nostra istituzione e degli iscritti. Facciamo degli esempi di situazioni formative che abbiamo studiato, per illustrare come avvengano l'assimilazione e l'interiorizzazione dei concetti e degli approcci clinici che vengono insegnati.

This exploratory study looks at the training and postgraduate experience of the — graduates of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. They were also asked to rate their satisfaction with themselves as psychoanalysts and with their analytic career. They were also encouraged to provide spontaneous narrative data. The data from our second survey showed important differences when compared with our first. In the first survey male respondents were in the majority; in the second, women held the majority.

Of the professions represented in the training program, psychiatry was the majority in the first survey, psychology and social work held the majority in the second. Analytic immersion continues to decrease, with most respondents having two patients at the time of graduation and one at the time of the survey.

LOOP THE PEER THROUGH DOCUMENT Original (PDF)

Wir baten auch um spontanes narratives Material. Die Daten aus unserer zweiten Umfrage wiesen im Vergleich zur ersten bedeutsame Unterschiede auf. In der ersten Studie war die Psychiatrie der Beruf, der im Ausbildungsprogramm mehrheitlich vertreten war, in der zweiten waren es Psychologie und Sozialarbeit.

I laureati sono anche stati incoraggiati a fornire spontaneamente altri dati in forma narrativa. I dati ricavati da questo secondo sondaggio mostrano delle importanti differenze rispetto a quelli raccolti ai tempi del primo. Delle professioni rappresentate nel primo sondaggio la psichiatria era quella maggiormente presente, mentre oggi a prevalere sono gli psicologi e gli operatori sociali. L'immersione analitica continua a diminuire: la maggior parte degli intervistati ha infatti due pazienti al momento della laurea e uno al momento del sondaggio.

Los datos de la segunda encuesta mostraron importantes diferencias con los de la primera. This paper is not a case study, but a brief look at the process I went through to arrive at a particular interpretation with a particular patient during a particular session.

I will concentrate on resistances in which both patient and analyst initially rely upon what is consciously known.

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Obwohl Freuds Selbstanalyse im Zentrum zahlreicher seiner Entdeckungen stand, bleibt die Selbstanalyse an sich ein schwieriges, umstrittenes und schwer fassbares Unterfangen. Der Beitrag ist keine Fallstudie, sondern wirf einen kurzen Blick auf den Prozess, den ich durchlief, um in einer bestimmten Sitzung mit einem bestimmten Patienten zu einer bestimmten Deutung zu gelangen. Sebbene l'autoanalisi sia stata per Freud il fulcro di molte scoperte, in quanto pratica essa viene a tutt'oggi considerata un esercizio complesso, controverso e di difficile categorizzazione. Il modello qui presentato si basa su una sovrapposizione dell'autoanalisi del paziente con quella dell'analista, da ottenersi attraverso il riconoscimento e l'uso del controtransfert di quest'ultimo.

CHE MI HANNO SCRITTO DOCUMENT Original (PDF)

El trabajo se concentra en las resistencias tanto del paciente como del analista de las cuales inicialmente basaron lo que se conoce conscientemente. Howard Shevrin and his team have developed a stringent subliminal priming methodology, which experimentally approximates a situation of an internal, mental triggering of unconscious defense. Through a series of four studies they thus are able to bring evidence for this type of unconscious defense. Therefore, alpha synchronization could serve as the brain mechanism of unconscious defense.

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The results only make sense if we suppose the existence of a dynamic unconscious, which has inherited childhood conflicts, and with privileged connections to neurotic symptom characteristics. Finally, interpretation of the results has led us to propose two distinct physiological mechanisms for defense: one, unconscious defense, by alpha synchronization in connection with the drive derivatives, and another, repression, based on the indications of reality in connection with the ego.

In insgesamt vier aufeinanderfolgenden Studien konnten sie diese Art unbewusster Abwehr empirisch nachweisen. Die Ergebnisse ergeben nur dann Sinn, wenn wir die Existenz eines dynamischen Unbewussten voraussetzen, das Kindheitskonflikte geerbt hat und besondere Verbindungen zu den charakteristischen Eigenschaften neurotischer Symptome aufweist.

Howard Shevrin e la sua equipe hanno sviluppato un metodo di priming subliminale, da attuarsi in condizioni di stretto controllo, per simulare sperimentalmente una situazione di attivamento interno, mentale, di difese inconsce. Si potrebbe quindi guardare alla sincronizzazione dell'onda alfa come al meccanismo cerebrale che presiede alle difese inconsce.

I risultati di questi esperimenti hanno senso unicamente quando venga data per acquisita l'esistenza di un inconscio dinamico che ha ereditato i conflitti dell'infanzia e che ha inoltre delle connessioni privilegiate con le caratteristiche dei sintomi nevrotici. Mediante una serie de cuatro estudios traen evidencias de este tipo de defensa inconsciente.

This change however, essentially withdraws provision for treating victims of abuse, violence and terror. This paper proposes a paradigm shift that reframes Freud's late instinct theory into a theory of dehumanization by recovering reparative and relational components of guilt. This reframe has major implications for the position taken with regard to the role of witnessing and the moral imperative in recovery from dehumanizing experience, which orthodox psychoanalytic theory has essentially bypassed.

Indeed, unless breaches of humanity are confronted by a witness, the life instincts stay merely rhetorical, if not contradictory, by leaving the death instincts to grow unseen and, thus, unopposed. The psychoanalytic treatment began in the early s in Monterrey, Mexico.

The study concludes that the psychoanalysis was effective in assisting with the patient's character disorder and partner selection, mainly because of the therapeutic alliance, the analysis of transference and character, and the patient's increased capacity for mentalization as a result of the interpretation of the TGMs.

Led to develop some inalienable attachment to her analyst in the primary transference, the analysand found herself caught up in the contradiction of her visceral dread of dependency, which compelled her to interrupt the work in progress. She then began to work out her analyst's comings and goings and to run into him in public places, as if to be assured of his immovability.

This phenomenon arose with high frequency as the effect of some idealization of the maternal object aiming to deny the spatiotemporal gap.

The chance that the experience of rejection via indifference may be repeated also entailed the transferential unfurling of a fantasy involving a double, undifferentiation counterbalancing the lived experience of separation. Such mechanisms could have the power to relay thoughts the moment undifferentiated parts of the ego — if not unborn parts of the self — were activated in a potentially symbiotic zone. Marked by a feeling of dispossession, the analyst's countertransference not only seemed to underscore this hypothesis, it also gave a partial explanation for it.

Until the analyst could recognize his own nostalgia for a symbiotic relationship, he had to encourage the occurrence of those unexpected meetings which stemmed from a convergence between the transference and the countertransference. Il rischio di ripetere un'esperienza di rifiuto dettato dall'indifferenza ha attivato al tempo stesso anche la fantasia transferale di un doppio: in questo caso la mancanza di differenziazione veniva a controbilanciare il vissuto di separazione. I concetti di identificazione proiettiva, di nuclei agglutinati dell'Io e di identificazioni proiettive incrociate potrebbero servire, tra gli altri, a rendere conto di questi fenomeni di tipo proiettivo ma non per questo meno reali.

Il controtransfert dell'analista, segnato da un sentimento di spoliazione, tende non solo a supportare questa ipotesi ma anche a offrirne una parziale spiegazione. Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world.

However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual.

Psicosomatica: come il tuo pensiero crea la tua realtà

Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence.

Non disponiamo, allo stato attuale, di teorie e classificazioni unificate dei meccanismi di difesa. Questo studio guarda al sistema psicologico come a una struttura dissipativa che scambia informazioni con il mondo esterno e con quello interno. Tuttavia, non tutti i tipi di meccanismi di difesa riescono effettivamente a essere d'aiuto all'individuo.

Sin embargo, no todo tipo de mecanismo de defensa puede realmente ayudar al individuo. The idea that she thus anticipated the concept of death instinct Freud introduced in is often found in psychoanalytic literature. But the specific meaning of Spielrein's hypothesis is seldom discussed, as well as the extent to which she anticipated Freud's concept.

In fact, there are important differences between their views. Besides, a closer analysis of Spielrein's text reveals other ideas that come close to fundamental aspects of Freud's theories from onwards, particularly the assumption of a more primordial mental functioning than the one regulated by the pleasure principle. But also here there are important differences between the views sustained by both authors. With this in view, the objective of this paper is firstly to discuss some hypotheses formulated by Spielrein in her work in order to elucidate her concept of death instinct as well as her hypothesis of the existence of a more primitive mental functioning than the one governed by the pleasure principle.

Next, the question of the possible similarities and differences with regard to Freud's concepts is also addressed.